• CN:11-2187/TH
  • ISSN:0577-6686

机械工程学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (24): 153-161,171.doi: 10.3901/JME.2019.24.153

• 运载工程 • 上一篇    下一篇

动车组牵引变压器冷却风机气动噪声特性的试验和仿真分析

刘健炜1, 张亚东2, 张淑敏1, 柳明1, 圣小珍1   

  1. 1. 西南交通大学牵引动力国家重点实验室 成都 610031;
    2. 南方科技大学力学与航空航天工程系 深圳 518055
  • 收稿日期:2018-11-25 修回日期:2019-10-15 出版日期:2020-12-20 发布日期:2020-02-18
  • 通讯作者: 圣小珍(通信作者),男,1962年出生,教授,博士研究生导师。主要研究方向为振动噪声理论。E-mail:shengxiaozhen@hotmail.com
  • 作者简介:刘健炜,男,1992年出生。主要研究方向为轨道交通振动噪声控制。E-mail:542242399@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划战略性国际科技创新合作重点专项资助项目(2016YFE0205200)。

Experimental and Simulation Analysis for Aerodynamic Noise of an EMU Traction Transformer Cooling Fan

LIU Jianwei1, ZHANG Yadong2, ZHANG Shumin1, LIU Ming1, SHENG Xiaozhen1   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031;
    2. Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055
  • Received:2018-11-25 Revised:2019-10-15 Online:2020-12-20 Published:2020-02-18

摘要: 为研究动车组牵引变压器冷却风机的气动噪声特性,针对某型冷却风机进行气动噪声试验,得到在不同测点处的声压级和频谱特性。同时,针对该型风机建立仿真模型,模型中考虑电动机、支架等实际结构,结合计算流体力学方法和Lighthill声学比拟理论,对冷却风机的非定常流动特性和远场声场进行数值仿真,与试验数据进行对比。结果表明,通过大涡模拟得到的冷却风机噪声主要阶次与试验具有较好的一致性;在基于风机侧面评价点声压功率谱密度所估算声功率贡献量中,宽频带噪声占比为74.76%,是后续减振降噪的重点;阶次噪声占比为25.24%,结合仿真分析发现,阶次的主要来源为进风口动叶轮和出风口动叶轮处气流脉动压力所形成的偶极子声源,其中进风口第33阶次和出风口第10阶次最为重要。所得分析结果可为该型风机的气动性能和气动噪声的改进提供切实可行的参考依据。

关键词: 冷却风机, 计算流体力学, 气动噪声, 阶次分析, 数值仿真, 阶次贡献率

Abstract: In order to study the aerodynamic noise characteristics of EMU traction transformer cooling fans, aerodynamic noise test is carried out for a certain type of cooling fan, and the sound pressure level and spectrum characteristics at different measuring points are obtained. At the same time, a simulation model is established for this type of fan. In the model, the motor, support and other fine structures are considered. Combined with the computational fluid dynamics method and Lighthill acoustic comparison theory, the unsteady flow characteristics and far-field sound field of the cooling fan are numerically simulated and compared with the test data. It can be seen that the main orders of the cooling fan noise obtained by using the large eddy simulation method are consistent with field test results, showing the effectiveness of the simulation model. Relative importance of broadband noise and rotation order noise are analyzed for the fan's lateral evaluation point. In terms of sound pressure power spectrum density, broadband noise contributes 74.76% while rotation order noise contributes 25.24%. Thus noise reduction should be directed to broadband noise. For rotation order noise, it is found that the main sources are of dipole nature produced by airflow pulsating pressure at the inlet impeller and the outlet impeller. For orders associated with the inlet impeller, the 10th order is most important while for the outlet impeller, and the 33rd order is most outstanding. The obtained analysis results may provide a useful reference for the improvement of the aerodynamic performance and aerodynamic noise of the fan.

Key words: cooling fan, CFD, aerodynamic noise, order analysis, numerical simulation, order contribution rate

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