• CN:11-2187/TH
  • ISSN:0577-6686

机械工程学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 54 ›› Issue (8): 137-143.doi: 10.3901/JME.2018.08.137

• 材料科学与工程 • 上一篇    下一篇

氦弧与氩弧电弧特性对比研究

赵红星1, 王国庆2, 宋建岭3, 刘宪力4, 周政1, 杨春利1   

  1. 1. 哈尔滨工业大学先进焊接与连接国家重点实验室 哈尔滨 150001;
    2. 中国运载火箭技术研究院 北京 100076;
    3. 天津航天长征火箭制造有限公司 天津 300462;
    4. 首都航天机械公司 北京 100076
  • 收稿日期:2017-05-03 修回日期:2017-08-25 出版日期:2018-04-20 发布日期:2018-04-20
  • 通讯作者: 杨春利(通信作者),男,1962年出生,教授,博士研究生导师。主要从事高效化焊接方法、电弧物理研究工作。E-mail:yangcl9@hit.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:赵红星,男,1992年出生,博士研究生。主要从事高效化焊接方法研究工作。E-mail:hxingzhao@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金资助项目(51475105)。

Comparative Research of Helium and Argon Arc Characters

ZHAO Hongxing1, WANG Guoqing2, SONG Jianling3, LIU Xianli4, ZHOU Zheng1, YANG Chunli1   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001;
    2. China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, Beijing 100076;
    3. Tianjin Long March Vehicle Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Tianjin 300462;
    4. Capital Aerospace Machinery Company, Beijing 100076
  • Received:2017-05-03 Revised:2017-08-25 Online:2018-04-20 Published:2018-04-20

摘要: 相对于氩弧焊而言,氦弧焊能够获得更大的熔深、熔化效率和更高的焊缝质量,在航天产品铝合金的焊接中表现出更为良好的作用。为比较两种热源电弧热力特性,采用高速摄像观测不同弧长下氦弧和氩弧电弧形态,采用电弧压力传感器测量电弧压力径向分布曲线,并采用分裂阳极法测量氦氩电弧阳极电流密度分布。结果表明,氦弧在阳极附近收缩明显,随弧长的增加氦弧由球形形态逐渐转变为梨形形态。氦弧和氩弧电弧压力均随电流的增大而增加,在相同的电流条件下,氦弧的电弧压力明显小于氩弧。相对于氩弧而言,氦弧阳极电流密度更集中,峰值电流密度也较大。更为集中的阳极电流密度和较高的电弧电压,使得氦弧具有更高的能量和分布更集中的阳极功率密度,有利于增加焊缝熔深,提高焊缝深宽比,实现较厚工件的焊接。

关键词: 电弧形态, 电弧压力, 氦弧, 氩弧, 阳极功率密度

Abstract: Compare to argon arc welding, helium can provide deeper penetration, much more efficient and high-quality weld when it serves as shielding gas, and it performed well in aerospace products welding. In order to compare the characters of these two different arcs, use high-speed camera to observe the shapes of argon and helium arc, while pressure sensors and two divided anodes are used to measure the distribution of arc pressure and anode current density. The results show that, helium arc is obviously compressed near the anode, and it turns to pear-shape with the arc length increasing, while the shape is spherical when the arc length is small. Both helium and argon arc pressure increase with the increasing of welding current, and the arc pressure of helium is much smaller than that of argon under the same welding current. The anode current density of helium arc is much more concentrated than that of argon arc, with larger maximum current density at the same time. The more concentrated anode current density and higher arc volt provide helium arc greater energy with concentrated anode power density, which is beneficial to increase the weld penetration and the depth-to-width ratio, make thicker workpiece welded.

Key words: anode power density, arc pressure, arc shapes, argon arc, helium arc

中图分类号: