• CN:11-2187/TH
  • ISSN:0577-6686

机械工程学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 57 ›› Issue (8): 195-204.doi: 10.3901/JME.2021.08.195

• 运载工程 • 上一篇    下一篇

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四轮轮毂电机驱动电动汽车驱动系统参数多目标优化匹配

丁晓林1,2, 王震坡1,2, 张雷1,2   

  1. 1. 北京理工大学电动车辆国家工程实验室 北京 100081;
    2. 北京理工大学北京电动车辆协同创新中心 北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-23 修回日期:2021-02-18 出版日期:2021-04-20 发布日期:2021-06-15
  • 通讯作者: 张雷(通信作者),男,1987年出生,博士,副教授,博士研究生导师。主要研究方向为车辆动力学理论与控制、电动车辆储能系统管理技术等。E-mail:lei_zhang@bit.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:丁晓林,男,1993年出生,博士研究生。主要研究方向为四轮轮毂电机驱动电动汽车动力学理论与控制。E-mail:xiaolinding@bit.edu.cn;王震坡,男,1976年出生,博士,教授,博士研究生导师。主要研究方向为车辆动力学理论与控制、车用锂离子动力电池成组理论与技术。E-mail:wangzhenpo@bit.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2017YFB0103600)和北京市科技新星计划(Z201100006820007)资助项目。

Powertrain Sizing for Four-wheel-independent-actuated Electric Vehicles Based on Multi-objective Optimization

DING Xiaolin1,2, WANG Zhenpo1,2, ZHANG Lei1,2   

  1. 1. National Engineering Laboratory for Electric Vehicles, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081;
    2. Collaborative Innovation Center for Electric Vehicles in Beijing, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081
  • Received:2020-03-23 Revised:2021-02-18 Online:2021-04-20 Published:2021-06-15

摘要: 为改善四轮轮毂电机驱动电动汽车平顺性和降低整车能耗,提出一种驱动系统参数多目标优化匹配方法。基于台架测试数据,建立永磁同步轮毂电机广义效率模型和质量模型;分别以经济性和稳定性为目标,基于动态规划法提出最优驱动与制动扭矩分配策略;以降低整车能耗和簧下质量为优化目标,求解驱动系统参数多目标优化匹配问题,获得整车能耗与簧下质量的帕累托最优集。仿真结果表明,在不同动力性指标约束下,整车动力性和经济性之间存在矛盾关系,动力性指标越高,车辆在测试工况下的能耗也越高,驱动系统最优配置方案为“前轴大电机,后轴小电机”;电机尺寸优化时,应尽量减小电机轴向尺寸,以提升车辆的操稳性和平顺性;驱动系统能耗与测试工况具有强相关关系,构建具有地域特异性的测试工况对轮毂电机设计具有重要意义。

关键词: 四轮轮毂电机驱动电动汽车, 多目标优化匹配, 轮毂电机, 广义效率模型, 扭矩分配策略

Abstract: A multi-objective optimization scheme for four-wheel-independent-actuated electric vehicles is proposed to improve ride comfort and reduce energy consumption. Firstly, a generalized efficiency model and a mass model for the permanent magnet synchronous in-wheel motor are constructed based on the bench testing data. Then, the optimal torque allocation strategies for the drive and brake modes are respectively proposed based on the dynamic programming method to optimize overall efficiency and ride comfort. Finally, taking the overall energy consumption and the unsprung mass minimization as optimization objectives, the powertrain sizing is cast as a multi-objective optimization problem, which is solved to obtain the Pareto set for the optimal sizing of the front and rear in-wheel motors. The results show that there is a contradiction between the power and the overall efficiency, and higher power requirement is conducive to higher energy consumption. The optimal powertrain configuration is that high- and low-power in-wheel motors are used for the front- and rear-axles, respectively. Besides, the axial length of the motor should be minimized to improve the handling performance and ride comfort. The energy consumption is strongly related to driving cycles, and a knowledge of driving patterns is helpful to optimize the motor efficiency.

Key words: four-wheel-independent-actuated electric vehicles, multi-objective optimization, in-wheel motors, generalized motor efficiency model, torque allocation strategy

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