• CN:11-2187/TH
  • ISSN:0577-6686

机械工程学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (7): 16-26.doi: 10.3901/JME.2020.07.016

• 机器人及机构学 • 上一篇    下一篇

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一种分布式集群机器人链式成型方法

杨宏安, 孔杰, 曹帅, 昝文佩, 申高攀   

  1. 西北工业大学机电学院 西安 710072
  • 收稿日期:2019-04-08 修回日期:2019-10-08 出版日期:2020-04-05 发布日期:2020-05-12
  • 作者简介:杨宏安(通信作者),男,1972年出生,博士,教授。主要研究方向为集群机器人、多机器人协同、智能调度优化方法。E-mail:yhongan@nwpu.edu.cn;
    孔杰,男,1996年出生,硕士研究生。主要研究方向为集群机器人鲁棒控制。E-mail:2603305986@qq.com;
    曹帅,男,1993年出生,硕士研究生。主要研究方向为集群机器人自主成型。E-mail:695810907@163.com;
    昝文佩,男,1994年出生,硕士研究生。主要研究方向为模块化集群机器人。E-mail:1963645774@qq.com;
    申高攀,男,1998年出生,硕士研究生。主要研究方向为多智能体及多机器人协同。E-mail:329184269@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金资助项目(51775435)。

Distributed Self-assembly Method Based on Motion-chain for Swarm Robotics

YANG Hongan, KONG Jie, CAO Shuai, ZAN Wenpei, SHEN Gaopan   

  1. School of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072
  • Received:2019-04-08 Revised:2019-10-08 Online:2020-04-05 Published:2020-05-12

摘要: 针对复杂非结构环境下作业任务对机器人的多功能性、柔性化等特殊需求,以分布式、大规模晶格式集群机器人的局部交互与自主协作为基础,提出了一种机器人系统随任务柔性变形的新成型方法。遵循“分层剥离、分层填补、迭代循环”的分层成型策略,将群体系统的全局行为转化为当前构型体外层个体的局部行为,从而使得大规模集群机器人的自主、有序成型成为可能。在分层成型策略指导下,设计了一种融运动链规划与执行为一体的集群机器人链式成型方法:依据“分层剥离”策略,通过边缘层内机器人个体之间的局部交互和协作,系统自主涌现出一条包含优先移动个体集的运动链,有效解决了群体成型过程中的“谁先走”问题;依据“分层填补”策略,通过个体成型规则引导运动链内个体沿构型体边缘有序地填充至待填补区域,解决了群体成型过程中的“怎么走”和“到哪里”问题。最后,设计并完成了一种晶格式、全向移动机器人本体模型和硬件实物,通过4类典型目标构型、数量多达169台机器人验证了集群机器人链式成型方法在通用性、可扩展性方面的有效性。这种“一套粒子、机机共融、一机多能”的新成型方式,可以实现通过“软编程”方式操控一群机器人自主、有序地完成给定二维目标构型任务的个性化定制。

关键词: 集群机器人, 链式成型, 分层策略, 运动链, 个体成型规则

Abstract: For the versatility and flexibility of robots in complex non-structural environments, a self-assembly approach for a two-dimensional user-specified shape is proposed, which is based on the local interaction and cooperation of distributed and large-scale lattice robots. With the stratified mechanism including layer-by-layer separation, layer-by-layer filling and iteration loop, the macro-level behavior in swarm robotics is transformed to local action of individuals within the edge layers of the current aggregate, which makes the autonomous shaping of complex shape possible. Under the guidance of the stratified mechanism, a self-assembly approach integrating the planning and execution of motion-chain is proposed. With the mechanism of layer-by-layer separation, a motion-chain, a collection of individuals that currently have right to move preferentially, are planned in the edge layer of the current aggregate through local interaction and information propagation; then with the mechanism of layer-by-layer filling, the individuals within a motion-chain move along the outer edge of the remaining aggregate to fill into the edge-filling layer. With the mechanism described above, the problem of “who goes first, how to go and where to go” in the process of self-assembly is solved. Finally, the feasibility and scalability of this novel approach are verified by simulation-based experiments, and the self-assembly approach is implemented on the Rubik robot, a hardware system developed in the lab. With the novel form that a set of particles becomes the multi-function tools by machine-integration, a swarm robot can be controlled to form the user-specified shape autonomous and orderly in a programmable manner.

Key words: swarm robotics, self-assembly, stratified mechanism, motion-chain, individual rules

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