• CN:11-2187/TH
  • ISSN:0577-6686

机械工程学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (20): 73-84.doi: 10.3901/JME.2019.20.073

• 特邀专栏:动力电池系统关键技术 • 上一篇    


华旸, 周思达, 何瑢, 崔海港, 杨世春   

  1. 北京航空航天大学交通科学与工程学院 北京 100191
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-04 修回日期:2019-09-29 发布日期:2020-01-07
  • 通讯作者: 杨世春(通信作者),男,1974年出生,博士,教授,博士研究生导师。主要研究方向为电动汽车能源动力系统安全、高效优化理论及集成控制相关科学与技术。E-mail:yangshichun@buaa.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:华旸,男,1977年出生,博士研究生。主要研究方向为电动汽车能源动力系统与智能驾驶相关领域理论及集成控制。E-mail:huayang@buaa.edu.cn;周思达,男,1996年出生。主要研究方向为新能源汽车技术与动力电池管理。E-mail:zhousida@buaa.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

Review on Lithium-ion Battery Equilibrium Technology Applied for Evs

HUA Yang, ZHOU Sida, HE Rong, CUI Haigang, YANG Shichun   

  1. School of Transportation Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191
  • Received:2019-03-04 Revised:2019-09-29 Published:2020-01-07

摘要: 锂离子电池因其能量密度高、功率密度高和循环寿命长等优势已成为电动汽车动力电池的首选,然而成组后单体间的内阻、容量及电压等特性差异可能对整车电池系统的寿命、安全及性能带来严重影响,而均衡管理是保障动力电池一致性的有效方案。基于电池状态信息对电池组进行均衡管理,能够提高动力电池组的可用容量,降低单体间不一致性所导致的衰减、容量损失,并避免因过充、过放等异常使用而导致的安全风险。但由于高成本的均衡拓扑设计与复杂的均衡控制策略,均衡系统目前较难以广泛推广。梳理近年来均衡管理系统的研究进展与可行方案,较为具体地介绍了均衡电路拓扑结构及其工作原理,并总结了目前常用的与新颖的均衡控制变量,分析各类均衡控制策略在实车应用时的优劣,系统性地比较各种均衡方法的优缺点。梳理目前亟待解决的均衡技术难点,并对均衡技术发展进行了展望。

关键词: 电动汽车, 锂离子电池, 不一致性, 均衡控制

Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been extensively used as the major power sources for electric vehicles(EVs) owing to the high energy and power density and long cycle-life. However, inconsistencies between batteries, including internal resistance, voltage and capacity, have a significant impact on the cycly-life, safety and comprehensive performance of battery systems. Equilibrium technology is an important solution to achieve consistency management. Equilibrium management based on battery status information can improve usage capacity, inhibit capacity degradation caused by inconsistencies between cells, and avoid thermal risks originated from abnormal use such as over-charging and over-discharging. However, the application of equilibrium system is limited due to the high-cost and complex control strategy. The article reviews the research progress of the equilibrium management system along with feasible schemes. First, the topology structure and working principle of the equalization circuit is introduced in detail. Then equilibrium control variables summarize used commonly or novel are reviewed with comparation. Besides, various equalization control strategies are analyzed with real scenario. Finally, the difficulties of the equilibrium technology that needs to be solved urgently are summarized, and the future prospects are depicted.

Key words: electric vehicles, li-ion battery, cell imbalance, equalization control