• CN:11-2187/TH
  • ISSN:0577-6686

机械工程学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 54 ›› Issue (14): 141-151.doi: 10.3901/JME.2018.14.141

• 运载工程 • 上一篇    下一篇

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高速无人驾驶车辆最优运动规划与控制的动力学建模分析

刘凯, 龚建伟, 陈舒平, 张玉, 陈慧岩   

  1. 北京理工大学智能车辆研究所 北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2018-02-05 修回日期:2018-06-15 出版日期:2018-07-20 发布日期:2018-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 龚建伟(通信作者),男,1969年出生,博士,教授,博士生导师。主要研究方向为无人驾驶车辆、路径规划与控制、环境感知、机器学习。E-mail:gongjianwei@bit.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:刘凯,男,1985年出生,博士研究生。主要研究方向为无人驾驶车辆、路径规划与控制。E-mail:leoking1025@bit.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(91420203,61703041,51275041)和中央高校基本科研业务费用专项资金资助项目。

Dynamic Modeling Analysis of Optimal Motion Planning and Control for High-speed Self-driving Vehicles

LIU Kai, GONG Jianwei, CHEN Shuping, ZHANG Yu, CHEN Huiyan   

  1. Intelligent Vehicle Research Center, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081
  • Received:2018-02-05 Revised:2018-06-15 Online:2018-07-20 Published:2018-07-20

摘要: 在高速无人驾驶车辆的运动规划与跟踪控制过程中,滑移和侧倾是很难克服的高度非线性约束,特别是在复杂地形条件下,容易导致车辆失稳甚至侧翻。通过研究地形因素对车辆转向特性和稳定性的影响,建立高速车辆的等效动力学模型,并提出了一种变步长的模型离散化方法,能够在保证及时动态响应的基础上,实现较长的轨迹预测时域以及计算的实时性。针对高速无人驾驶车辆的滑移和侧倾等动力学安全因素,通过对车辆稳定行驶状态进行分析,推导了基于包络线和零力矩点的高速车辆稳定性约束条件。根据在高速、滑移、侧倾等复杂约束下车辆安全行驶的要求,运用模型预测控制算法求解最优运动轨迹及跟踪控制序列,在保证道路环境约束的同时满足车辆的滑移和侧倾等稳定性约束。仿真试验表明,该方法可以有效的考虑道路曲率和地形对高速车辆动力学特性的影响,保证车辆无碰撞行驶,同时防止车辆出现滑移和侧倾等现象。

关键词: 操控稳定性, 等效动力学建模, 高速无人驾驶车辆, 模型预测控制

Abstract: Motion planning and control for high-speed self-driving vehicles is complicated since it involves highly nonlinear constraints such as sideslip and rollover. Inappropriate handling of these constraints, particularly under complex terrain conditions, will lead to loss control of vehicles or even fatal accidents. Through studies on the effect of road curvature and terrain to the vehicle steering characteristics and handling stability, a simplified equal dynamic model is developed for high-speed self-driving vehicles. And a model discretization method with variable time-steps in the prediction horizon is proposed to ensure immediate dynamical response while attaining a long enough prediction horizon and computational feasibility. Taking dynamical safety related concerns such as sideslip and rollover into account, vehicle handling stability constraints, including sideslip envelope and zero moment point, are concluded through vehicle steady-state analysis. A model predictive control problem is formulated and solved to find the optimal motion trajectory and control sequence, satisfying the road environmental constraints while ensuring handling stability. Simulation results validated the capability of the proposed approach under the influence of complex road curvature and terrain.

Key words: equal dynamic modeling, handling stability, high-speed self-driving vehicle, model predictive control

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